An overview of the science of cybernetics

In this way computer scienceconsidered a separate discipline in the West, is included as one of the component parts of cybernetics. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes, and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organismsmachinesand organizations, including self-organization.

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This enhanced ability of computers has made possible two different views of cybernetics. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback "back afferentation" was studied.

A dominant consideration is that of recursiveness, or self-reference of political action both with regards to the expression of political consciousness and with the ways in which systems build upon themselves".

The author later extended the definition to include information flows "in all media", from stars to brains. The result of these deceptively simple thought-experiments was the concept of self replicationwhich cybernetics adopted as a core concept.

Ross Ashby W. Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behavior.

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Grey Walter. Ross Ashby and W. As with the ancient Greek pilot, independence of thought is important in cybernetics. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback "back afferentation" was studied.

An overview of the science of cybernetics

The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social memes, living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study. Consequently, these thinkers were led to invent a new cybernetics, one more suited to the organizations which mankind discovers in nature - organizations he has not himself invented". Brown to develop electronic control systems for the U. In the early s John von Neumann , although better known for his work in mathematics and computer science, did contribute a unique and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: Von Neumann cellular automata, and their logical follow up the Von Neumann Universal Constructor. The ideas are also related to the biological work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy in General Systems Theory. Electronic control systems originated with the work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. The ideas of Maturana , Varela and Atlan , according to Jean-Pierre Dupuy "realized that the cybernetic metaphors of the program upon which molecular biology had been based rendered a conception of the autonomy of the living being impossible. James Watt The first artificial automatic regulatory system, a water clock, was invented by the mechanician Ktesibios. Umpleby In the s, new cybernetics has emerged in multiple fields, first in biology. Ross Ashby "A branch of mathematics dealing with problems of control, recursiveness, and information, focuses on forms and the patterns that connect. Grey Walter one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. The result of these deceptively simple thought-experiments was the concept of self replication , which cybernetics adopted as a core concept.
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