Essay questions on renal physiology

UREA: Proximal tubule is permeable to urea, but urea concentration still increases in this part because more water is reabsorbed than urea. Thus anything that affects the reabsorption of one thing will also affect the reabsorption of the other. It generates a hypotonic filtrate which it delivers to the distal tubule.

The kidneys are slightly protected by the ribs and are surrounded by fat for protection not shown.

renal nclex questions

Review Questions 1. Thus a very high electrochemical gradient is required to drive ion transport.

Renal pathology practice questions

INULIN is difficult to use because you must infuse the substance and then completely empty the bladder both before and after the infusion, to ensure full recovery. Lots of ions will move through the paracellular path in the proximal tubule. Thus the inulin clearance is equal to the Glomerular Filtration Rate. Chapter Review As noted previously, the structure of the kidney is divided into two principle regions—the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla. It counteracts the actions of Angiotensin II. Gradient-Limited Diffusion: Secondary active transport of ions through intracellular and paracellular pathways. The net transport is the difference between the active transport and the back diffusion. Each kidney weighs about — g in males and — g in females. The effect of Aldosterone is a slow, long-lasting effect, since Aldosterone is a steroid and regulates at the synthetic level. These cells are important to potassium homeostasis. They are very potent diuretics. The two kidneys receive about 25 percent of cardiac output. Clearance indicates the minimum volume that must have been filtered by the kidney, in order to account for the excretion of a substance in the blood. Figure 1.

This is the only portal system in which an arteriole is found between the first and second capillary beds. The secretion allows for the unloading of these proteins into the filtrate.

GFR remains relatively stable. The two capillary beds are clearly shown in this figure. The fascia and, to a lesser extent, the overlying peritoneum serve to firmly anchor the kidneys to the posterior abdominal wall in a retroperitoneal position.

Thus the inulin clearance is equal to the Glomerular Filtration Rate. In this video, Dr. Renal Hilum The renal hilum is the entry and exit site for structures servicing the kidneys: vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters.

Tight Junctions regulate movement Paracellular Spaces exist between cells.

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