The factors that affect feminine appearance in society
If we see stereotypes in film, it's because stereotypes existed in society.
Others also talked about the influence of the media and the prevalence in fashion and entertainment of "tall, slim women in Western countries," adding that in China, "we just changed our standard of beauty.
For quantitative studies, we used a modified version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project EPHPP checklist [ 38 ], in which each study was rated as strong, moderate, weak or unclear in relation to eight criteria: 1 study design, 2 selection bias, 3 drop-outs, 4 blinding, 5 intervention integrity if applicable6 data collection, and 7 analysis and confounding.
Next, we looked for common associations across studies and summarized these as themes organized by the levels of the socio-ecological framework described by Blum et al [ 42 ].
Social and environmental factors influencing gender identity
Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label. Assessment discrepancies were resolved by team discussion until consensus was reached. Gender role socialization relies on modeling and reinforcement — girls and women learn and internalize socially expected and acceptable feminine traits and behaviors and are rewarded for gender-appropriate behavior. For example, in the Book of Isaiah , God is compared to a mother comforting her child, while in the Book of Deuteronomy , God is said to have given birth to Israel. This investigation of college women assessed multiple parameters of body image i. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3, — The scientific, social, and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Early adolescence is thus seen as a unique opportunity to address gender attitudes before they become more solidified [ 4 , 27 , 29 — 31 ]. Abstracts that passed the initial screen were promoted to full-text review. Journal of Social Psychology, , 71— Females possess two "X" chromosomes, while males possesses a single "X" chromosome and a "Y" chromosome. S1 Table shows the full search strategy for each database.
Early adolescence is thus seen as a unique opportunity to address gender attitudes before they become more solidified [ 42729 — 31 ]. Data extraction Four reviewers AK, SG, AD, GNR extracted data using a standardized template across the following domains: research question, study design, sampling and sample characteristics, data collection, analysis, key findings, limitations and conclusions S2 Text.
Inthe Barbie fashion doll was introduced as a feminine ideal of modern aesthetic beauty  by Mattelin the United States. Conversely, young women and girls are often under pressure to conform to stereotypical norms of female subordination, thus restricting their voice, opportunities and social and sexual decision-making [ 22 ].
Gender differences in concern with body weight and physical appearance over the life span.
Influences on gender roles
Feminist perspectives on eating disorders. The cognitive-behavioral treatment of body-image disturbances. Washington, D. We built our search strategy in three blocks using controlled vocabulary and free-text terms: 1 young adolescents example: adolescent, child, middle school AND 2 gender attitudes e. Cognitive-behavioral body-image therapy: Comparative efficacy of group and modest-contact treatments. Gender differences in concern with body weight and physical appearance over the life span. Sonderegger Ed. Sex differences in perceptions of body shape. Combined with having economic freedom and more control over their lives and bodies, that pressure can result in eating disorders and other problems, she said. Women in context: Toward a feminist reconstruction of psychotherapy. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention.
based on 87 review